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The foundation of British colonial rule in India proved to be a disaster for Indian agriculture. It not only destroyed social structure of rural society but also ruined entire handicraft industries. As a result, a series of famines started in the country, which resulted in peasant movements. More recently social scientists in India have drawn attention to the study of peasant movements and they have analysed the question of peasant movements on the basis of various parameters. This research paper is focus on issues of peasantry and also the emphasis on the nature of communist and Gandhian ideology regarding the peasant movement in India. Various primary and secondary sources have been used to prepare this research paper.